The Ranking System
Case's Ladder has one of the simplest ranking systems ever used for competitive play.
We call it a "Ladder" because each team has a unique rank or "rung" that represents their
standing among other teams. The highest ranked team holds the #1 position. Someone
ranked #2 is ranked below the #1 team. So, the goal is to "climb" the Ladder all
the way to the top.
- When you first join you are placed in the "Unranked" category of the Ladder.
- You become "Ranked" after winning your first Ladder match. (Unranked teams can play each other and the winner becomes ranked at the bottom of the ladder.)
- When you defeat a higher ranked team you move up half the distance between their rank
and your own. Example
- Your rank on the Ladder does not go down if you lose a match unless your opponent is ranked
DIRECTLY below you.
- When other teams beat teams above you and jump over your team in rank you will slide down.
- Some special rules exist for teams ranked in the Top Ten. These rules will be covered in a later section.
Since your Ladder account is where all your records are kept we have some special policies regarding it. These are very important and you should pay close attention to them.
- E-mail Address
- Your E-mail address must be kept current on the site, as it is the only way we have of contacting you. Use the 'USER EDITOR' if you need to change it.
- If your E-mail address is found to be invalid your account will be penalized or removed.
- Ladder Names
- If your Ladder name is offensive to other users or contains profanity your account will be removed.
- If your Ladder name is found to be abusive towards another user your account will be removed.
- If your Ladder name is found to be too similar to an existing user's nickname you will have to choose another.
- You are only allowed to change your Ladder name once per week.
- Your Ladder name must match the name you use in chat and play your matches under exactly. This includes spaces, underscores and other keyboard characters. If it doesn't the match is invalid and your opponent is not required to report any losses to you.
- teams should never report a loss to a name that is different than the one their opponent used during the match.
- If your team hasn't played a match in 190 days it will be automatically removed for inactivity in order to keep the Ladder as dynamic as possible and give everyone a chance to move up.
- Individual players who are not members of an active team are removed after 190 days of inactivity. If you are on an active team you will not be removed.
- Removal for inactivity is completely automated. No exceptions are made to this rule. Our teams want an active league full of opponents who can be easily found.
- We offer optional "Gold & Platinum Membership" programs. One of the benefits to these program is the fact that you cannot be purged for inactivity. This program is recommended
for frequent travelers or those in the military. Signup information can be found here.
- Multiple Users
- We only allow a set number of accounts from one location. If this number is exceeded your accounts will be investigated and possibly removed. We have an automated security system to keep track of this information, and all new account info is logged.
- It is illegal for one person to have multiple accounts or teams. Only one account is allowed per person, PERIOD.
- It is illegal for more than one person to use or share the same account. You are more than welcome to each participate in the Ladder, but you will have to create separate accounts for each individual playing.
The following rules are currently active for teams:
- You may have up to 50 members on your team at any given time.
- Up to 2 team members can participate in each match. Generally, the teams must be balanced to keep things fair (ie 2 versus 2, 3v3...NOT 3v2).
- Only one player can be designated the captain at any one time. You may transfer the title of captain in the TEAM EDITOR.
Whether you are the one looking for a match or the one being asked to play there are some
guidelines that need to be followed. Violating these could result in penalties. If you notice
anyone violating these rules please feel free to contact us using the SUPPORT area.
Playing a Match
- The best way to find matches is to announce in chat that you are looking for a Case's Ladder match. You will see others doing the same. This lets everyone know you are interested in Ladder play.
- When you are in a chat room trying to find a match you should be courteous and respectful to other people in the room. Repeatedly asking for a Ladder game tends to annoy people very quickly. This could make them not want to play you, and make it harder for YOU to move up the Ladder.
- Email challenges should be reserved for teams in the top 10 of the Ladder, and only used then if you have trouble setting up a match via the normal methods.
- If you are found to be issuing challenges via Email excessively and without first attempting to get a match via the traditional methods you will be penalized.
Once Per Day: Once Per Day: You can only play the same team three times per day. You can play as many different teams as you'd like on any given day.
Verify Information: We recommend that you make sure potential opponents belong to the Ladder before starting your match. This way if you have a problem you will have all of the information you need to resolve it quickly. You can do this very easily using our find team utility. It's not a bad idea to write this information down after you look it up.
Priority: If you have multiple people challenging you at once you should play the person with the highest rank.
First Come, First Served: The priority rule for accepting challenges only applies when you have multiple challenges at the same time. If you are challenged by a team you should not go to chat and actively seek another team higher in rank to challenge, rather your team needs to accept the first challenger.
Specific Ranks: It is illegal to refuse matches based on Ladder rank. You may request a specific rank or range when advertising for a challenge, but you may not refuse a valid challenge simply because the challenger is not the rank you are wanting to play.
Once you have found an opponent and you are ready to start your match, there are some rules about the match to keep in mind.
- There are no illegal settings for Ladder matches as long as BOTH teams agree to them before the match begins. If someone starts the game with incorrect settings you should point it out and immediately return to chat. This will allow you to make sure you both understand what the other team wants. You can then restart the match.
- We have set default settings for some games. If your game has default settings they will be listed in the next section. If any of these rules conflict with overall Ladder rules, the game specific rules apply.
- Failure to Finish Match:
- Once you start a match you are responsible for completing it. If you have to leave before the game is finished for any reason it is considered a loss and you need to promptly report it.
- Although it does not happen often it is possible that you or your opponents may be disconnected from the game or the Internet entirely before your match is finished. If one team was clearly losing at the time of disconnect then that team should be a good sport and report the loss. If there was no clear winner at that point in the match and it is not a game that allows you to continue then a rematch would be suggested. For more information regarding the proper procedures in the event of a disconnect please visit our FAQ.
- If one or more users in a match leaves the match and the game allows it substitute team members can be selected to finish playing that for the person(s) who disconnected. The person who left the match is only required to report losses to his/her opponents if they left voluntarily or were already clearly going to lose at the time they lost connection.
- You are not allowed to play Ladder matches against people who live in the same household as you. You can play friends and relatives who do not live with you, but you should limit matches against them to one or two a week. Remember, the idea of the Ladder is to see how you stack up against players from all over the world--not across the street.
- You are not allowed to partner with people who live in the same household as you. This includes anyone who plays from the same physical location, whether or not they actually reside there.
- You are not allowed to report losses to anyone who plays from the same computer as you do ever. Our security software will detect this activity if it is attempted and participating accounts will be penalized or removed.
- The same rules that apply to behavior in chat (covered later in these rules) also apply during games. If we receive complaints about the behavior of a user or team steps will be taken to deal with the problem.
- Teams are responsible for the conduct of their members. You should pick your team members wisely and not cut slack or your whole team could face penalties.
- It is illegal to play in more than one Ladder match at a time. This slows down gameplay for everyone.
The rules are determined for each individual tournament by the Tournament Director holding the event. If you click on the link for a specific tournament you will see a summary of that tourney, including a RULES link where you can find out the specific rules for that event. Tournaments are exempt from Game Specific Rules unless the TD has specified otherwise on his/her rules page.
To keep things as competitive as possible we often have special rules that only apply to certain
games. The rules for the current ladder are listed here. If you have any suggestions for rule
changes that would improve the Ladder please feel free to submit them.
Reporting the Match
SNF GAME SPECIFIC TOURNAMENT RULES
*****All SpadeSnFriends Rules will be followed for this tournament.*****
1. Host Table: All tournament rules, assignments, calling tables ,and reports
are made at host table 1. Host table 1 will be open 30 mins prior to start time
2. Pal Table: Table 2 is for pal changing. If you need a pal go to table 2 and
let the pal changer know you want a pal. The pal changer can only assign u a pal
if u are at table 2 and asking for a pal.
If you are available to pal go to
table 2 and let the pal changer know u are available to be a pal.
table will be open 30 mins prior to start time
Tournament times are 6:30, 9,
and 11 pm. eastern time. SNF wants every one to get to play!!!! Please
get signed up early to ensure you get to play.
3. Blocking: It is against SNF rules to block a player, so if you have a player
blocked and they cannot sit at the table because you have them blocked, it will
be a DQ for the team that has the player blocked.
4. Starting the Tournament: When there are four full teams we will start on
time. If there is not four full teams and the fourth team needs a pal, we
have 5 minutes to find a pal. If no pal is found by 5 mins. after start time,
the tournament will be cancelled and table games will be requested.. If there
are only three teams by start time, the tournament will be cancelled and table
games will be requested. Be in the room and have a team signed up early enough
for a pal to be found,to insure you get to play
5. STARTING A MATCH: You must be at host table one. Once your match is posted on
host table 1 by the host, you have 5 minutes to start your game or it will
be a DQ. The only exception is when the host is playing in the tournament has
to check all tables. Do not call your opps to a table until all matches have been
posted by the host, including matches between rounds.
6. Table Setting. The table needs to be set for the correct game. If the table is
not set correctly you must reseat at the same table. If the table is set wrong
and not noticed until players are on the second hand, the game must be completed
as set with no reseat. If the table is not set for the correct number of hands
this does not call for a reseat. Just stop the game after the proper number of
hands has been completed.. In event of a tie, play one more hand or until game
shows it is over regardless of the number of bags.
7.TABLE TALK: No Table Talk is allowed by players or kibitzers ,while the
hand is in play,that will affect the outcome of the game. Do not coach a player
or discuss the game strategy of any player including your own partner, during the
Coaching or discussing stategy is to be done in private before or after the game.
8. SHOWING CARDS: Opening cards is allowed, but is up to the discretion of the
player. If theopponents ask you to close your cards close them immediately. If
you kibitz and your team is playing in that game you MUST kibitz your own team.
9. RENEGE BUTTON: Remember since the Renege button is on table, the person that
misbids, has to click renege and go on to next hand.
10. SLOW PLAY: If the opponents have to asked you to speed it up more than two
times the opponent may call the host to the table. The host will take into
consideration if the person is having issues. If the host asks you to speed up
and you DO NOT this could result in a DISQUALIFICATION. The only exception to
this rule is if the host is reporting a game. We would like to ask for your
patience as SHG is having a lot of issues with lags and boots.
11. BOOTING: Due to the numerous booting problems through out SHG we have taken
out any DQ for booting, at least until this issue is much better. A player has
10 mins total per game for a boot. If your partner is booted and does not come
back quickly go ahead and ask for a sub. When your partner returns they may
resume the game at the end of the hand, if they have not depleted the 10 minutes
per game time limit
12. Be Right Back: A player has 5 mins per BRB and is allowed 3 brbs. If the
player thinks they need more than 5 mins for any brb please get a sub.Please post
in lobby the time when any player takes a brb so the total of mins can be
counted. There are three 5-minute brbs as some of us have health issues
13. SUBS: A sub can be anyone who is not a banned player. Regardless if they have
subbed before or not and can be a player in tournament with a bye, if no sub is
available in lobby. Due to our league being small this will prevent numerous
DQ's. All teams must have 1 original player that registered in the
tournament.When a pal is changed to a team, then the pal becomes an original
member of that team for the tournament and is not a sub. If both original
players are booted and 2 subs are needed at the same time to finish a game it’s
an automatic DQ.. If a Sub is required due to a player depleting the 10 minutes
per game time limit, then a sub must finish the TC.
14. HOST: All host's decisions are final during a tournament. DO NOT ARGUE WITH
the HOST or delay the tournament. There are no mistakes that cannot be corrected
after the tournament is over even, mistakes made by a host.
If you refuse to
complete a tournament when asked to play by the host, your team will be
disqualified from the tournament.
Arguing or refusing to play could result in
a 3 day box for the individual.
If you do not understand a ruling then the
host and/or admin will handle the problem after the tc.
The Host will open
tables 30 mins. before start time.
The Host will check each table for the
proper table settings.
All hosts playing in a game must state on table that
they posting .
15. REPORTING: The team that wins, reports the match at host table 1. Winners,
report as follows: EX: team2 over team3 round 1.
Team listed on top brackets
picks table and seats in all rounds except finals. The team listed on top will
get table choice, the bottom team will get seat choice for the Final Game.
16. PLAYING IN MORE THAN ONE GAME: It is against SNF rules to be playing more
than one game at a time under any circumstances any where.
17. MOST IMPORTANT RULES: Always Show Good SNF Sportsmanship and Have FUN.
*** Most Safe Harbor and Cases rules concerning conduct applies in our lobby.***
SpadeSnFriends LEAGUE SPECIFIC RULES
The NUMBER 1 Rule for SNF is to relax and enjoy your time with friends in a
The rules for tournaments are determined by the SpadeSnFriends admin. team.
No games are to be hosted that are not on Safe Harbors drop down list in the SNF
If you click on the link for a specific tournament you will see a
of that tourney on every tournament page.
Every tournament page has RULES
where you can read the rules for SNF tournaments.
Transfer of Stats:
SpadesNFriends League will transfer stats but only if you are no longer in the
league you are transferring stats from. If you are remaining in more than one
league your stats can not be transferred.
It is against SNF rules to withdraw and sign back up to reset stats. You will be
issued a warning the first time and afterwards your account may be locked for
continuing to do this.
If you wish to have your stats reset, please contact any of the Admin who would
be more than happy to reset them for you.
Teams are allowed to have their stats reset once per week.
If you wish to have your nic changed, you may do so by going into My Account on
the main page of SNF. If you are unsure, then please feel free to ask any of the
Admin who can change it for you.
Once you change a nic, you have to wait a week (7 days) before you can change it
It is against SNF rules to withdraw and sign back up to change your nic.
Most Safe Harbor and cases rules apply concerning behavior in our SNF Lobby.
There is a Zero Tolerance Policy for any lobby disruptions that evokes negativity
towards the league or players.
It is the responsibility of all members of SNF to ensure the lobby remains a
pleasant place for anyone to be in or watch at all times.
Remember you can always put players on ignore and you will not see what they type
in the lobby or at tables and they will not be able to see what you type either.
Inappropriate language will not be tolerated. This includes, but is not limited
to, profanity (including abbreviations), sexual content (such as explicit
language, innuendo or reference to sexual preference).
There is to be no talk about illegal drugs or any type of illegal activities,
racial, ethnic, religious slurs,or conversations of a political nature.
If you are asked to stop in the lobby and do not honor that request, you will
have received your only warning and can expect a gag. If you continue after the
gag, then you will receive a penalty box.
Please remember to always type in lower case font. All CAPS is a sign of shouting
and some are offended by it. (If you have trouble with your eye sight, let admin
know, and it will be excused.)
SNF is an open league and we do not require an interview before starting a team.
The Captain is responsible for reading and signing the Captain's Agreement in
order to know what is expected of a team.
To start a team, the Captain needs to add the (Friend) plus have at least one
The Captains are responsible for the actions of their team members and are
expected to uphold the values and rules of the league.
Teams may have up to sixty (50) members plus the Friend.
Team actions and complaints:
All complaints must be sent to Ad
min at firstname.lastname@example.org with a cc
team Captain.Administration will return, without action, any complaints that are
submitted improperly. Chats need to be logged or captured, not copy/pasted.
Recruiting by Captains or league members from other teams within this leagueor
other league rooms, either in the lobby or by private message, will not be
tolerated. If you are approached while in SNF by someone recruiting for another
team or league then capture chat and send it to admin email. Recruiters should
look up a players nic to see to see if they already belong to a team before
trying to recruit that player. This can be done by any one using the Find Player
option in the left hand menu on the SNF main page.
Members of the same household may not play at the same table unless assigned to
opp each other in a tourney.
Same household players may only kibitz each other at a game table.
If you are a member in the same household or same workplace, you must notify the
Administration at email@example.com and cc your Captain. Please submit
your ladder nic, email addresses and team names of all involved.
Game addying guidelines for Table Games:
Before addying for any format, please check to make sure there are no current
game requests for the same format already out. If there is, either join them or
wait until they get a game before you begin to addy.
Regular NDN and Regular All Bids are different formats.
You may addy a different format at the same time other open game requests are out
as long as it is not the exact same format. Regular NDN and Regular All Bids are
When the lobby is moving quickly, a game addy may be missed and someone else
might addy for the exact same format. When this happens, just politely state
which table had the addy out first then the other table addy should get up and go
to the first addy s table out of respect for the team and to show good
sportsmanship for over- addying.
We encourage anyone who wants to play and who does not have a partner to sit at
any game addy and actively ask for a pal friend. There are usually plenty of
players who are willing to partner anyone else at any time. Be prepared, if you
don t have anyone readily available to pal, to stand so that a team who is ready
to play can sit.
Any team member is allowed to start a game with a non-team member as a team
friend/pal. That player does not have to be on a team but players have to be
registered in the SNF League.If you are starting a game with a friend/pal as a
partner, please notify your opponents in the table chat at the start of the game.
If you need to leave, then please post at the table that you need to leave.
Before leaving the table, please check your team roster page after every report
to ensure the correct players have been given the correct wins and losses.
A misreported game occurs when the wrong player is credited with a win or loss.
Misreported game statistics can be corrected manually by Admin upon notification.
Cheating is anything that is intentionally said or done on the table, in private
message or in the lobby, etc. to get an unfair advantage to win a game.
Any statements made that are proven as intentional cheating with proper
documentation (logged or captured chats or screen shots of table and/or pm with
Accusations of cheating without proof:
Accusations of cheating without proof, whether straight out or insinuated, are
against league rules.
If you suspect cheating, you are not to discuss it at the table or with other
players but pm an Admin who will advise you.
If you can provide proof in the form of logged chat, then please send it to
If you sit and addy for a game then you must play against whoever sits at the
table, with no exceptions. If leave the table without playing, you and your team
will receive a loss for the game and your team will be rung to the bottom of the
TABLE TALK: No Table Talk is allowed by players or kibitzers ,during the hand
in play,that will affect the outcome of thehand or game. Do not hold up the game
by discussing the game strategy of any player including your own partner. This
should be done in private before or after the game.
Opening cards is allowed, but is up to the discretion of the
player, however, if opponents ask you to close your cards close them immediately.
If you kibitz and your team is playing in that game you MUST kibitz your own
Remember since the Renege button is on table , the 1 that
misbids, has to click renege and go on to next hand.
PLAYING IN MORE THAN ONE GAME:
It is against SNF rules to be playing more
than one game at a time under any circumstances any where.
Once your game is completed the loser of the match is responsible for reporting it
as soon as possible. You can report your matches using the "Report Loss" link located in the left hand frame. Here are some things to remember regarding reporting your losses.
- Report Immediately: Losses are to be reported immediately after a game is completed before any further Ladder matches are started. Not reporting promptly will result in penalty.
- Who to Report To:
- In teams games one team member from the losing team reports.
- Reporting & Passwords: It is illegal to share your password with any other user for the purpose of reporting or any reason. If you are discovered using another user's password both of your accounts will be removed.
- Problems Reporting: If you have a problem and cannot report your own loss follow the SUPPORT link and request assistance with this from Ladder Staff.
- Unreported Matches:
- Most unreported matches are a simple case of forgetfulness on the part of your opponent. If your opponent has not reported your match within an hour of the match you should send them a friendly E-mail reminder to post. In most cases this is all that is needed to get them to post.
- If they still have not posted an hour after your E-mail reminder and you see them online playing other matches you should follow the SUPPORT link and submit an unreported match claim against them. Ladder staff will handle the situation from there for you.
- If, however, you do not see them online after sending your Email reminder you should give them 12-24 hours to post their loss before submitting an unreported match claim against them in order to give them time to receive your E-mail.
- You should never harass another user in chat or interrupt their other Ladder matches in an attempt to get them to report. If you see them online giving them one friendly reminder is acceptable, but beyond that you should let Ladder Staff settle the dispute for you.
- For more information regarding the proper procedures for handling unreported matches visit the Ladder FAQ.
As a member of Case's Ladder you are representing us and all the other teams when you are playing Ladder matches. Because we rely heavily on the support of the gaming networks and producers of the games that you play we have some guidelines for how you need to behave online. It's part of your duty to be respectable so that you don't give the Ladder (and other teams!) a bad name.
- If you have a problem in chat look for a LadderOp to assist you. You can find a current listing of the LadderOps at this link.
- Abuse of LadderOps in relation to them doing their jobs in chat or the forums is forbidden. If you are found to be guilty of this your account will be penalized. Remember that they are volunteers dedicating their time to helping improve the quality of the Ladder for all.
- LadderOps do not have the power to kick, mute, or ban other teams in chat in most cases. They are a staff presence available in chat to help you come to a fair resolution when problems or disputes arise. If they cannot help you with the problem themselves they will get someone who can or refer you to the proper place to go to report the situation. They are there to assist you, so take advantage of them.
- If you have a problem with or wish to file a complaint against a LadderOp please send it via E-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please include all pertinant information.
- You can find more info regarding LadderOps in our FAQ.
- It goes without saying that we won't stand for cheating of any kind. This includes, but is not limited to, breaking rules, using modified executables, reporting false results, or otherwise tampering with Ladder rankings.
- If you are certain your opponent is cheating you should leave the match immediately and report the suspicious activity via the SUPPORT link on the Ladder page. You do not need to report the match as a loss. If your opponent submits an unreported match claim against you be sure to reply to the inquiry mail we send you explaining your reasoning or the match will be automatically posted against you.
- If you encounter another Ladder user behaving in an unacceptable manner in chat the best thing to do is just ignore them. If you notice one particular user being abusive repeatedly please let us or your LadderOps know. Please be sure to include all pertinent information, such as the offender's username, and a brief explanation of the problems that you encountered.
- There are many teams available to challenge. It is illegal to continually harass one specific team for a match. If you need a match with a specific person and are having a problem getting it let us know via the SUPPORT link rather than harassing that individual, and we will help you resolve the conflict.
- We encourage you to try to solve problems on your own before bringing it to the staff, but not to the point of creating hardship to yourself or harassing other users. We have one of the best support staffs available on the Internet. If you have a problem we are here to help you.
- It is illegal to abuse or harrass another Ladder member. If you are observed being abusive in chat it could result in penalty. Depending upon the extent of the abuse you might not always receive a warning in these cases. It is important to remember that two wrongs do not make a right. In other words, if you are being harrassed by another Ladder member come to us for assistance. Do not take matters into your own hands or return the abuse, or you could find yourself in trouble as well.
- Nice Guy Rule: Please note that behavior guidelines apply for all methods of communication. This includes chat, E-mail, message forums, ICQ, etc. Treat other members with respect!
Because everyone dreams of being in the Top Ten we have some special rules that apply
for these users. This keeps the competition for these slots in high gear. Only teams who
are ranked in the Top Ten need to worry about these.
Fill in the Blank
- Top of the Heap: Everyone wants a shot at #1; consequently there should be a lot of activity and movement in the top ranks of the Ladder. Remember that rank has priority when it comes to challenges. Keeping that in mind, the number one team should play the number two team as often as possible.
- Inactivity: Teams in the Top Ten must play at least once every 5 days. If the
don't they are automatically dropped five rungs and their inactivity counter is reset. There are no exceptions to this rule.
- Rank Hounding: Teams in the Top Ten are expected to be as active after they reach the top ranks as they were before. In other words, if you are playing 20 games a day to make it to the Top Ten and then only play once a week to hold your rank you may be penalized.
- Leapfrogging: Teams in the Top Ten should try to play the person ranked directly below them at least once every three days. If you are found to be avoiding challenges that put your rank at risk your account will be penalized.
- Challenges from Different Ranks:
- Top Ten teams must take challenges in order of rank as with other users.
- Unless you are ranked in the top 25 of the Ladder it is illegal to E-mail Top Ten teams requesting a match. Even then E-mail challenges should be reserved for situations in which you have failed in attempts to get a match via the traditional methods. If you receive a mail from a team outside of this range you should reply and gently remind them of the rules.
- Play Lists: Use of 'playing lists' is strongly discouraged. If someone asks for a match and you are already playing simply tell him or her that. Lists only serve to foster discouragement on the part of the users who are constantly told they are being added only to rarely get the promised match. You are not expected to play every person on the Ladder just because you are ranked in the Top Ten. You fought your way up there one rung at a time and so must everyone else.
- Fair Play: It should go without saying that other Top Ten teams who challenge you should be treated with the utmost respect and courtesy. You should do your best to see that challenges of this nature are played as soon as possible for the benefit of both parties. Avoiding or delaying challenges from other Top Ten members will result in penalty.
- Because everyone has got their eyes on the top ranks of the Ladder we expect the members of this elite group of teams to conduct themselves appropriately. This means we will be keeping a closer eye on them than most. You are among the Top Ten teams in the world in your chosen game. Set a good example!
- There is a lot of competition and pressure associated with being ranked in the Top Ten. Remember that this is just a game and above all meant to be fun!
We can't cover every aspect of gaming in our rules. We have tried to be as thorough as possible and cover all the basics. However, just because something is not listed doesn't meant that it is allowed. Use common sense. If it is something that will adversely effect other teams and you might think twice about doing it's probably against the rules. Our staff have the final say in such matters. If you have a specific question please feel free to contact us via E-mail.